However, nc is varied for different network realizations, and the corresponding largest clusters are thus much different. Classes of small-world networks. Consumers who do not adopt, do not pass on information to their neighbours, while consumers who adopt, pass on information to their neighbours. This is the reason behind the relative inefficiency of small-worlds in terms of diffusion size. 2b). (c) The distribution of the order parameters obtained in each individual realization |$f(\psi _c^n)$| for generation n = 10. An alternative and possibly complementary interpretation is to think of networks with high clustering as rural societies where most social ties are established within a village and networks with low clustering as urbanised societies where clustering is much lower. This chapter examines one of the simplest network processes, which is percolation. Indeed, the percolation model is first and foremost a theoretical model that applies to many social and natural contexts. That is why we cannot observe a finite-size scaling in Fig. (2000) apply this formalism to percolation. Our main contributions are threefold. At this point, the percolation transition is more abrupt than that for smaller iteration values. The model represents an important step towards understanding the history-dependent dynamic processes on multiplex networks, and may prove useful in important practical applications like link prediction [44], vital node identification [45] and community detection [46] in multiplex networks. Third, in our framework social networks act solely as the medium for information diffusion, thus ignoring other possible effects of social interactions. A critical threshold value of the price, \(p_{c}\), separates the two regimes (phases). (2013). Our percolation model offers a clear benchmark for the adoption mechanism. 2004; Dover et al. In Section 6, we extend our model to percolation in networks with a power law distribution of consumers’ connectivity (scale-free networks). 2013). If two nodes i and j who are in the same cluster in C2 are connected in layer A, they will be connected in this generation. The two patterns contrast with each other: the network inefficiency decreases little below \(\mu=0.01\), and drops fast beyond this value. Real social networks may be closer to one or the other limit of the model (which makes the small-world model so relevant), depending of the specific case considered.    Accepted: 02-Mar-2018 [20]. By examining the fixed point of equations (3) and (4), we can also find that the infinite generation demonstrates a discontinuous percolation transition, see Section I-C of the Supplementary Information for details. A larger mass of consumers with high reservation prices enlarges the connected component of the operational network. In future research, the percolation theory can be integrated in welfare analysis of markets, where equilibrium prices are derived, rather than treated as a parameter value. American Economic Review, 103(6), 2466–2498. IoT/CPS networks. L.L. acknowledges the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFA0301604). [doi:10.1287/mnsc.15.5.215]. The spread of behavior in an online social network experiment. Its average path-length is almost the same of a Poisson network, but the clustering coefficient is very large and comparable to the original regular network. CAMPBELL, A. Links are either existing (\(\eta_{i,j}=1\)) or absent (\(\eta_{i,j}=0\)), and do not depend on time. SOLOMON, S., Weisbuch, G., de Arcangelis, L., Jan, N. & Stauffer, D. (2000). This chapter examines one of the simplest network processes, which is percolation. The percolation threshold in a small-world is much lower than in a Poisson network, and the non-diffusion regime is much larger. Ref. Put differently, the operational network is fragmented in many small components of consumers, without any links between these components. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 20(2), 2: http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/20/2/2.html. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. It is the local nature of information diffusion in social networks that makes the actual adoption curve to depart from the standard linear demand curve. Network robustness and fragility: percolation on random graphs. Scaling and percolation in the small-world network model. The diffusion time at p = 0 and p = pc from the simulations of Figure 5 are reported in Table 2. On the contrary, p = 0 is a “best condition”, where all the network is accessible (apart from unconnected components without a seed). The configuration C3 induced by layer A on C2 has three clusters indicated by blue, orange and red, respectively. The percolation threshold is defined as the critical value of nodes’ activation probability where a phase transition occurs in the size of connected components of active nodes, the so-called percolating cluster. Econometrica, 25(4), 501–522. Since, for monopolistic market structures, lower demand translates into lower prices, some of the welfare losses will be compensated by lower equilibrium prices. 2008; Cantono & Silverberg 2009), and translate the percolation model into an explicit welfare-theoretical framework in which the inefficiency of networks can be expressed by unfulfilled consumer surplus. One of the most popular models of social networks is the small-world model introduced by Watts & Strogatz (1998). (b) Generation n = 1. Among the 150 684 common users of the two networks, there are 8 308 326 and 5 270 665 links in the Twitter and FriendFeed layers, respectively. For ER networks |$\mathfrak {F}(x)$| can be obtained by solving a self-consistent equation; however, there is no closed form for SF networks and the theoretical analysis can be done only around the critical point, see Section I of the Supplementary Information for details. That is, for relatively expensive products, a social network may not be able to convey the product's existence to all its members, and consequently not all consumers that would like to buy the product will buy it, because they are not informed. Here, we consider the human brain networks which are constructed using the high-resolution brain atlas with 1024 Regions-of-Interest (ROIs) [30], that is the network thus has 1024 nodes. The remarkably different network structure remains the small-world one. This leads to an elegant theory concerning the robustness of networked systems to the failure of their components. Emergence of scaling in random networks. A second complication results from the presence of multiple interaction channels that are often involved in history-dependent processes [16,17]. In general, for a distribution \(f[0,1]\) of reservation price values, the demand with full information is \(D(p)=N\times Prob (adoption)\), where. HTML Importantly, these findings are beyond the single modal imaging/layer and traditional percolation, thus providing a novel understanding and convergent results for MDD. At low prices, the number of adopters follows the linear demand curve reflecting the uniform distribution of reservation prices. The latter is an unambiguous way to locate the critical price p = pc of the transition between the diffusion and no-diffusion regimes. We illustrated this point by simulating the percolation model[2] for the case where 10,000 consumers form a Poisson random network (Erdös & Rényi 1960). The percolation threshold gives an absolute measure of diffusion, i.e., the “fatter” the potential demand is, the larger the diffusion regime. Social Network Analysis. What makes small-world networks interesting is that they have a short average path-length, comparable with the one of a Poisson network, while preserving another character of the original lattice, which is a high level of clustering. Section 4 considers the time dimension of market diffusion. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press. Section 2 studies the effects of percolation on innovation diffusion. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 100, 20–32. This multiplex network has two layers, which capture functional correlations and morphological similarity of the human brain based on ROIs, respectively.

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